Skills Book Section II - Writing Strategies Review
TEST on FRIDAY, 12/2/11.
Check your answers below per section. Complete the extra practice and check your answers at the bottom of this page.
Organization and Focus (page 14-15)
Essays must be clear, easy to understand, and focused. It must have a main idea with DETAILS that support it.
Details should be organized:
- in sequential or chronological order
- cause and effect
- compare and contrast
- order of importance
- geographic or location order
Always keep in mind AUDIENCE and PURPOSE.
Who are you writing for? Kids? Your teacher? A friend?
Are your writing to tell a story? To explain something? To persuade someone?
Organization and Focus Key Check your answers!
My Notes: notes will vary
1. Main Idea Statement:
There are several reasons for coyotes' ability to survive in both wild and urban areas
2. Supporting Details:
Coyotes are smart Can run quickly
Can adapt Can multiply quickly
Have varied diet Have keen senses
It is possible for humans and coyotes to share the land.
1. Cause 1: Coyotes are smart and adapt to new places
2. Cause 2: Coyotes have a keen sense of smell, hearing and sight, which allow them to easily find new sources
of food and recognize enemies when they are near.
3. Cause 3: Coyotes multiply quickly.
EFFECT: Coyotes live in all states but Hawaii and can survive in wild and urban areas.
Organization and Focus Practice -- KEY is at the bottom of this page
DIRECTIONS: What is the main idea? Cause and Effects?
Some people don't think that kids and teens can feel stressed out. However, more and more, kids are dealing with stress in many aspects of their lives.
As colleges and higher education gets more competitive, kids feel pressured in school to do well. They also receive more and more homework as schools are pressured to raise their test scores.
Parents can also cause stress if they want their kids to do too many things at once. For instance, playing multiple sports, going to piano lessons, finishing homework, and still finding time to relax and be a kid is almost impossible!
Results of too much pressure and stress on kids can be negative. Stress can result in malnutrition, exhaustion, lowered immune, and other physical and mental effects. In the end, it seems like kids are just as susceptible to stress as adults are!
Transitions (page 16)
Transitions are words and phrases that show the connections in writing.
Danielle went to school and mom went to work.
Finally, it is winter break!
After a long day of school, I had a big ice cream sundae.
*See your "Write Right" packet for a complete list of transition words!
(answers can vary)
2. Because or After
3. then or before
4. Before or After
5. Later or Then
Transitions Practice - Key is at the bottom of this page.
Read the passage below and identify the transitions that the writer uses to create unity:
In 1519, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and about 240 men. They headed across the Atlantic Ocean, encountering fierce storms. After three months, the ships reached South America. The men enjoyed the sweet fruit and the rest from the pounding ocean, but things soon turned sour. Back at sea, they encountered more bad weather and the sailors mutinied. As a result, Magellan had them killed.
Supporting Statements (page 17-18)
Statements should be supported with anecdotes, descriptions, facts, and examples.
Good writing includes strong supporting statements. Here are some ways you can include these statements in your writing:
- An anecdote is a short story about an event of incident.
One time, I saw polar bears at the San Diego Zoo and they swam up to the glass and pressed their huge paws against the window for us to see!
- A description tells how something looks, feels, or acts.
Their fur is thick and white so they can stay warm and blend into the snow.
- A fact is something known to be true.
Polar bears live only in colder climates. They break through the ice to fish in the freezing ocean waters.
- An example is used to illustrate an idea.
For example, Polar bears are found in the Arctic region, where temperatures have dropped to -90.4 degrees!
Supporting Statements Key
1. C, fact
2. B, Sentence 8
3. C, the third paragraph
Write It: Can vary
Supporting Statements Practice - KEY is at the bottom of this page.
Read these statements from an article discussing year-round schools. Which type of supporting statement are each of the following?
1. Rather than attending school 180 days, as is the case now, students will be in classes for at least 250 days, resulting in more study time.
2. For example, students will be able to conduct longer experiments in their science classes and practice more math problems.
3. The students at Horritt Middle School attend school year round and are able to grow bean and tomato plants for a year and study their growth cycles.
Note Taking, Outlining, and Summarizing (Page 19)
Taking notes is important in doing research before writing. Taking notes involves writing sown the most important ideas. It is NOT necessary to write in complete sentences, as long as YOU know what you are trying to say.
Notes can be taken in many different ways: lists, outline with main points, etc.
Notes should summarize the material (important concepts are written in shorter form).
Note Taking, Outlining, and Summarizing KEY
Rewards of Baby-Sitting
B. Clothes and Activities
II. Child and Care Skills
Write It: Answers vary
Make sure you have a topic sentence.
Make sure you include only the most important details.
Note Taking, Outlining, Summarizing Practice - KEY at the bottom of this page.
Read the paragraph below and write a summary:
After World War I, the German people were very angry: the peace treaty was a great humiliation, there was no money, and there was no work. In these bad times, an unknown Austrian worked his way up to the position of "Fuhrer" (leader) of an unimportant political party in Munich. His name was Adolf Hitler; the party called itself the NSDAP, and its followers were called "Nazi's." After an unsuccessful attempt to take over the government, Hitler was put in jail. There, he wrote his plans for world domination in a book he called Mein Kampf or "My Struggle." Hitler said that the German people were "Aryans," the strongest and best race. All other races were inferior, especially the Jews. whom he blamed for everything that was wrong and for all German defeats.
Research Skills (page 20-22)
When writing a research paper, begin by identifying possible topics. Then, narrow down the topic by asking questions you would like to have answered. Evaluate the questions and use them to develop ideas through inquiry, investigation, and research.
If your topic is to broad, you will have trouble focusing your research. Keep your topic specific.
Research Skills Key
Answers Can Vary
Research Skills Practice -- KEY at the bottom of this page.Read the broad topic below & answer the questions:Topic: The Statue of Liberty1. Narrow the topic.2. Ask at least 4 questions about the topic.3. Evaluate your questions. Write a sentence about how you would direct your research.
Citing Sources (page 23-24)
A bibliography is included at the end of a report or paper to lost all the sources used for research.
References are in alphabetical order by the author's last name or by the first important word in the title.
Details are important in a bibliography. Include publishers and dates. If you don't know a part of the information, leave it out and go on to the next part of the entry.
Citing Sources Key
**Even though the directions in the packet don't say to, on lines two and on, you should indent. Also, you should double space all entries.
Benchley, Peter. Shark Trouble. New York: Random House, 2002.
MacQuitty, Miranda, Dave King, and Frank Greenaway. Eyewitness: Shark. New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 2000.
"The Secret Life of Sharks." Discover, June 1999: 54.
Lauber, Patricia. Volcano: The Eruption and Healing of Mount St. Helens. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Katz, Jon. A Dog Year. New York: Villard Books, 2002.
Stein, Joel. "It's a Dog's Life." Time, May 19, 2003: 60.
Citing Sources Practice -- KEY at the bottom of this page.
"Animal Rights." World Book Encyclopedia. 2004 edition. The Amazing Universe. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1991.
"A Walk Across America: Part II." National Geographic August, 1979: 52.
Barton, Horace. "Human Cloning?" Newsweek 28 December 2004.
Infotrac, 18 March 2005 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com> .
Collins, Glenn. "Single Father Survey." New York Times 21 November 2000: 20.
1. What type of source is the last entry?
2. How are the sources arranged?
3. What punctuation is used around the title of an article?
4. What do you do if no author is listed?
Revision (page 25)
You should always evaluate and revise your writing to make sure the organization is logical and the words are precise.
Does the beginning state the TOPIC clearly?
Does the middle include SUPPORT for the topic?
Are the paragraphs in the right ORDER?
Is there a CONCLUSION?
Should any ideas be ADDED or TAKEN OUT?
Do any general words need to be replaced with SPECIFIC words?
Try It: Answers will vary.
1. C, Sentence 6
2. D, Sentence 7
Revision Practice -- KEY is at the bottom of this page.
There has been much controversy over whether students should wear uniforms to school. The fact of the matter is that uniforms help parents save money and prevent conflicts among students. For example, parents will save money on buying their children's clothes and can spend their money on other things. Also, many gang members wear stuff that causes controversy.
1. What is the topic of this paragraph?
2. What are the supports for the topic?
3. What is wrong with the underlined part of sentence 2?
4. What word could you use replace "stuff" in the last sentence?
5. What is this paragraph missing?
PRACTICE SECTION KEYS
Organization and Focus Practice KEY
main idea: Some people don't think that kids and teens can feel stressed outCauses: pressure in school, homework, too many activities outside schooleffects: malnutrition, exhaustion, lowered immune, and other physical and mental effects
Transitions Practice KEYIn 1519, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and about 240 men. They headed across the Atlantic Ocean, encountering fierce storms. After three months, the ships reached South America. The men enjoyed the sweet fruit and the rest from the pounding ocean, but things soon turned sour. Back at sea, they encountered more bad weather and the sailors mutinied. As a result, Magellan had them killed.
Supporting Statements Practice KEY
Note Taking, Outlining, Summarizing Practice KEY
After WWI, the Germans were unhappy. Because of this, people like Hitler started become leaders in politics. Hitler became the leader of the Nazis and went to jail when he tried to overtake the government. He wrote Mein Kampf while he was in jail, which is where all of his political ideas started.
Research Skills Practice KEY
Answers will vary.
Citing Sources Practice KEY
1. Newspaper article
3. in quotations
4. start with the title
Revision Practice KEY
1. school uniforms
2. saving money and less conflict
3. too wordy
4. tshirts, jeans, clothing, etc.
5. a conclusion